Royal C. Gardner - Publications


Professor of Law and Director, Institute for Biodiversity Law and Policy

A.B., Georgetown University
J.D., Boston College

Environmental Law, International Environmental Law, Torts, Research and Writing (Environmental Law), Wetlands Seminar

Books and Book Chapters

Lawyers, Swamps, and Money: U.S. Wetland Law, Policy, and Politics (Island Press 2011).

Wetlands in the Americas:  The Role of the Ramsar Convention on Wetlands and the Benefits of Ramsar Site Designation (Ramsar Secretariat 2011) (contributed two chapters and served as one of two General Editors).

The Ramsar Convention, in Wetlands - Integrating Multidisciplinary Concepts (Ben A. LePage ed., Springer 2010).

Official Development Assistance: Toward Funding for Sustainability, in Agenda for a Sustainable America (John C. Dernbach ed., Envtl. L. Inst. 2009) (co-author Ezequiel Lugo).

Legal Considerations, in Conservation and Biodiversity Banking (Ricardo Bayon et al. eds., Earthscan 2008).

Rapanos and Wetland Mitigation Banking, in The Supreme Court and the Clean Water Act: Five Essays 56 (Vt.
J. Envtl. L. 2007).

Mitigation, in Wetlands Law and Policy: Understanding Section 404 (Kim Diana Connolly, Stephen M. Johnson
& Douglas R. Williams eds., ABA 2005).

Regulación de la contaminación acústica en los Estados Unidos, in Régimen jurídico del ruido: una
perspectiva integral y comparada
(Estanislao Arana García & María Asunción Torres López eds., Comares (U.
Granada, Spain) 2004).

Official Development Assistance, in Stumbling toward Sustainability (John C. Dernbach ed., Envtl. L. Inst. 2002).

National Research Council,Compensating for Wetland Losses under The Clean Water Act (2001) (contributed
to report as member of NRC Committee on Mitigating Wetland Losses).

Articles, Essays, and Materials

State of the World’s Wetlands and Their Services to People: A Compilation of Recent Analyses (Ramsar Sci. & Technical Briefing Note no. 7, Ramsar Convention Secretariat 2015) (translated into Spanish and French) (co­authors ten STRP members).

Mitigation Enforcement, Breach of Contract, and the Law of Unintended Consequences, 37 Nat’l Wetlands Newsl., Mar.–Apr. 2015, at 11.

Comments on Philip Garone’s The Fall and Rise of the Wetlands of California's Great Central Valley (California, 2011), 4 H-Environment Roundtable, Nov. 2014, at 11.

The Legal Status of Environmental Credit Stacking, 40 Ecology L.Q. 713 (2013) (co-author Jessica Fox).

Mitigation Banking and Reputational Risk, 34 Nat'I Wetlands Newsl., Nov./Dec. 2012, at 10.

Mitigation Banking and Takings, 34 Nat'l Wetlands Newsl., May–June 2012, at 7 (reprinted in 30 Envtl. Forum 30, July/Aug. 2013).

Avoiding, Mitigating, and Compensating for Loss and Degradation of Wetlands in National Laws and Policies (Ramsar Sci. & Technical Briefing Note no. 3, Ramsar Convention Secretariat 2012) (translated into Spanish and French) (co-authors Marcela Bonells, Erin Okuno, and Juan Zarama).

Incorporating Environmental Law into First-Year Research and Writing, 20 Persps.144 (2012) (also published in 42 Envtl. L. Rep. 10941 (2012)).

Stacking Opportunities and Risks in Environmental Credit Markets, 41 Envtl. L. Rep. 10,121 (2011) (co-authors Jessica Fox and Todd Maki of the Electric Power Research Institute) (reprinted in 29 Envtl. Forum 42 (July/Aug. 2012)).

Corporate Shell Games: LLPs, LLCs, and Responsibility for Mitigation Sites, 31 Natl. Wetlands Newsltr. 6 (co-author Theresa J. Pulley Radwan) (Nov.-Dec. 2009).

Compensating for Wetland Losses under the Clean Water Act (Redux): Evaluating the Federal Compensatory Mitigation Regulation, 38 Stetson L. Rev. 213 (2009) (co-authored with eight former members of the NRC Committee on Mitigating Wetland Losses) (abridged version published in 31 Nat'l Wetlands Newsletter 1 (Mar.-Apr. 2009)).

African Wetlands of International Importance: Assessment of Benefits Associated with Designations Under the Ramsar Convention, 21 Georgetown Intl. Envtl. L. Rev. 257 (2009) (co-authors Kim Diana Connolly and Abou Bamba).

North American wetland mitigation and restoration policies, 17 Wetlands Ecol. & Mgt. 1 (2009) (introduction to special issue).

Reconsidering In-Lieu Fees: A Modest Proposal, Ecosystem Marketplace (July 2007).

The Ramsar Convention on Wetlands: Assessment of International Designations within the United States, 37
Envtl. L. Rep. 10,089 (2007) (co-author Kim Diana Connolly) (abridged version published in 29 Natl. Wetlands
Newsltr. 6 (Mar.-Apr. 2007)).

International Environmental Law: International Legal Developments in Review: 2005, 40 Intl. Law.
197 (Summer 2006) (co-authored).

What Happens When a Wetland Mitigation Bank Goes Bankrupt? 35 Envtl. L. Rep. 10,590 (2005) (co-author
Dean Theresa J. Pulley Radwan) (abridged and updated version published in 28 Natl. Wetlands Newsltr. 1
(July-Aug. 2006)).

Advancing Environmental Education through Moot Court, 1 Intl. J. Envtl. Consumerism 63 (2005) (co-author
Dean Darby Dickerson).

The Role of Wetland Mitigation and Conservation Banking in Sustainable Development: The United States
, 1 Forum Pub. Policy 47 (2005).

Perspectives on Wetlands and Biodiversity: International Law, Iraqi Marshlands, and Incentives for
, 15 Colo. J. Intl. Envtl. L. & Policy 2003 Yearbook 1 (2004).

Rehabilitating Nature: A Comparative Review of Legal Mechanisms That Encourage Wetland Restoration
, 52 Cath. U. L. Rev. 573 (2003).

International Assistance, Sustainable Development, and the War on Terrorism, 32 Envtl. L. Rep. 10,681
(2002) (reprinted in Official Development Assistance in Stumbling toward Sustainability 149 (John Dernbach
ed., Envtl. L. Inst. 2002)).

Corps' New Regulatory Guidance Letter on Mitigation: Trick or Treat?,24 Nat'l Wetlands Newsl. (Mar.-Apr. 2002).

Book Review, Wetlands Explained: Wetlands Science, Policy and Politics in America, J. Experimental Marine
Biology & Ecology (U. of Sydney, Austrl.) 192 (2002).

Money for Nothing? The Rise of Wetland Fee Mitigation, 19 Va. Envtl. L.J. 1 (2000).

International Environmental Law Symposium, Foreword, 28 Stetson L. Rev. 1031 (1999).

Invoking Private Property Rights for Environmental Purposes: The Takings Implications of Government-
Authorized Aerial Pesticide Spraying
, 18 Stanford Envtl. L.J. 65 (1999).

Book Review, Diverse Opinions on Biodiversity, 6 Tulsa J. Comp. & Intl. L. 303 (1999).

Casting Aside the Tulloch Rule, 20 Natl. Wetlands Newsltr. 5 (Sept.-Oct. 1998) (reprinted in 10 Envtl. Litig.
Comm. Newsltr. 11 (1999)).

Exporting American Values: Tenth Amendment Principles and International Environmental Assistance, 22
Harv. Envtl. L. Rev. 1 (1998).

Taking the Principle of Just Compensation Abroad: Private Property Rights, National Sovereignty, and the Cost
of Environmental Protection
, 65 U. Cin. L. Rev. 539 (1997).

Banking on Entrepreneurs: Wetlands, Mitigation Banking, and Takings, 81 Iowa L. Rev. 527 (1996) (reprinted
in 34 Pub. Land & Resources L. Dig. 11 (1997)).

Respecting Sovereignty, 8 Fordham Envtl. L.J. 133 (1996).

Federal Wetland Mitigation Banking Guidance: Missed Opportunities, 26 Envtl. L. Rep. (Envtl. L. Inst.) 10,075 (1996).

The Value of Wetlands as Wetlands: The Case for Mitigation Banking, 23 Envtl. L. Rep. (Envtl. L. Inst.) 10,261 (1993) (co-authored with William J. Haynes II).

Recognizing the Corps' Commitment, 15 Nat'l Wetlands Newsl. 9 (Mar.-Apr. 1993) (co-authored with Michael L. Davis).

Public Participation and Wetlands Regulation, 10 UCLA J. Envtl. L. & Pol'y 1 (1991).

The Army-EPA Mitigation Agreement: No Retreat From Wetlands Protection, 20 Envtl. L. Rep. (Envtl. L. Inst.) 10,377 (1990).

Protecting a School's Interest in Value Inculcation to the Detriment of Students' Free Expression Rights: Bethel School District v. Fraser, 28 B.C.L. Rev. 595 (1987).